# Exercise C.5.6

$\star$ Consider a sequence of $n$ Bernoulli trials, where in the $i$th trial, for $i = 1, 2, \ldots, n$, success occurs with probability $p_i$ and failure occurs with probability $q_i = 1 - p_i$. Let $X$ be the random variable describing the total number of successes, and let $\mu = \E[X]$. Show that for $r \ge 0$,

$$\Pr\{X - \mu \ge r\} \le e^{-r^2/2n}$$

(Hint: Prove that $p_i e^{\alpha q_i} + q_i e^{-\alpha p_i} \le e^{\alpha^2/2}$. Then follow the outline of the proof of Theorem C.8, using this inequality in place of inequality (C.45).)

This is tricky. I spent quite a while and I don't like it. Anyway, let's first prove the hint.

Let:

$$f(x) = e^{x^2/2} - (pe^{qx} + qe^{-px})$$

We want to prove that it is monotoneously increasing when $x \ge 0$. It is not very easy to show that $f'(x) > 0$, so let's show that $f'(x)$ is also monotoneously increasing by solving $f''(x) > 0$.

$$f'(x) = xe^{x^2/2} - pq(qe^{qx} - pe^{-px}) \\ f''(x) = e^{x^2/2} + x^2 e^{x^2/2} - pq(qe^{qx} + pe^{-px}) > 0 \\ \Downarrow \\ \text{(} x^2 e^{x^2/2} \text{ is positive)} \\ \Downarrow \\ e^{x^2/2} > pq(qe^{qx} + pe^{-px}) \\ \Downarrow \\ \text{(} pq < \frac{1}{4} \text{ from } x(1-x) - 1/4 < 0 \text{)} \\ \Downarrow \\ e^{x^2/2} > \frac{1}{4}(qe^{qx} + pe^{-px}) \\ \Downarrow \\ \text{(} p < 1, q < 1 \text{)} \\ \Downarrow \\ 4e^{x^2/2} > e^{qx} + e^{-px} \\ \Downarrow \\ \text{(} e^{qx} + e^{-px} = e^{-px} (e^x + 1) < e^x + 1 \text{)} \\ \Downarrow \\ 4e^{x^2/2} > e^x + 1 \\ \Downarrow \\ (e^{x^2/2} > 1) \\ \Downarrow \\ 3e^{x^2/2} > e^x \\ \Downarrow \\ 3e^{x^2/2 - x} > 1 \\ \Downarrow \\ 3e^{\frac{(x-1)^2}{2} - \frac{1}{2}} > 1 \\ \Downarrow \\ 3 > \sqrt{e}$$

Since $f''(0) = 0$, then $f'(x)$ is increasing for $x \ge 0$.

Since $f'(0) = 0$, then $f(x)$ is increasing for $x \ge 0$.

Since $f(0) = 0$, then $f(x) \ge 0$, hence the inequality holds.

We can just substitute it in the expectation:

\begin{aligned} \E[e^{\alpha (X_i - p_i)}] &= e^{\alpha(1-p_i)}p_i + e^{\alpha(0-p_i)}q_i \\ &= p_i e^{\alpha q_i} + q_i e^{- \alpha p_i} \\ &\le e^{\alpha^2/2} \end{aligned}

Then:

\begin{aligned} \E[e^{\alpha(X - \mu)}] &= \prod_{i=1}^n \E[e^{\alpha(X_i - p_i)}] \\ &\le \prod_{i=1}^n \exp(\alpha^2 / 2) \\ &= \exp(n \alpha^2/2) \end{aligned}

And:

\begin{aligned} \Pr\{X - \mu \ge r\} &\le \exp(n \alpha^2/2)/\exp(- \alpha r) \\ &= \exp(n\alpha^2/2 - \alpha r) \\ &= \exp\bigg(\frac{n r^2}{2 n^2} - \frac{r^2}{n}\bigg) \\ &= \exp\bigg(-\frac{r^2}{2n}\bigg) \end{aligned}