# Exercise C.4.9

$\star$ Let $X$ be the random variable for the total number of successes, in a set $A$ of $n$ Bernoulli trials, where the $i$th trial has a probability $p_i$ of success, and let $X'$ be the random variable for the total number of successes in a second set $A'$ of $n$ Bernoulli trials, where the $i$th trial has a probability $p_i' \ge p_i$ of success. Prove that $o \le k \le n$,

$$ \Pr\{X' \ge k\} \ge \Pr\{X \ge k\} $$

(Hint: Show how to obtain the Bernoulli trials in $A'$ by an experiment involving the trials of $A$, and use the result of exercise C.3-7)

Let $Y_1, Y_2, \ldots Y_n$ be indicator random variables for the events in $A$.

Let $Z_1, Z_2, \ldots Z_n$ be new random variables, such that:

- If $Y_i = 1$ then $Z_i = 1$
- If $Y_i = 0$ then $Z_i = 1$ with probability $\frac{p_i' - p_i}{1-p_i}$

Let's calculate $\Pr\{Z_i\}$:

$$ \Pr\{Z_i\} = p_i \Pr\{Y_i = 1\} + (1 - p_i) \cdot \frac{p_i' - p_i}{1-p_i} = p_i + p_i' - p_i = p_i' $$

Since we know that $p_i' \ge p_i$, we can do the following:

$$ \Pr\{X' \ge k\} = \Pr\{Z_1 + Z_2 + \ldots + Z_n\} \ge \Pr\{Y_1 + Y_2 + \ldots + Y_n\} = \Pr\{X \ge k\} $$

The last part can also be proven by exercise C.3-7.