Exercise 4.3.7

Using the master method in Section 4.5, you can show that the solution to the recurrence $T(n) = 4T(n/3) + n$ is $T(n) = \Theta(n^{\log_{3}4})$. Show that a substitution proof with the assumption $T(n) \leq cn^{\log_{3}4}$ fails. Then show how to subtract off a lower-order term to make the substitution proof work.

First we guess $T(n) \le cn^{\log_3{4}}$. Thus:

\begin{align} T(n) & \le 4c(n/3)^{\log_3{4}} + n \\ & \le cn^{\log_3{4}} + n \end{align}

Let's guess $T(n) \le cn^{\log_3{4}} - n$. Thus:
\begin{align} T(n) & \le 4\Big(c(n/3)^{\log_3{4}} - n\Big) + n \\ & \le cn^{\log_3{4}} - 4n + n \\ & \le cn^{\log_3{4}} - 3n \\ & \le cn^{\log_3{4}} - n \end{align}